Welcome to my Blog! Hello, my name is MaryLouise and I am a Special Education Language Arts Teacher. I have utilized my lesson plans and other original teaching material to create picture books, workbooks, nonfiction and fiction articles and teacher's guides for educational resources.

Thursday, December 12, 2013

Technical Writing and Patents

 The Institute of Science and Technical Communications defines the profession of Technical Writer as preparing information that helps users who use the product:
online help, user guides/manuals, white papers, design specifications, system manuals, project plans, test plans and business correspondence.
Some aspects of the skill set needed for this type of writing is as follows: information design, information architecture, training material development, illustration/graphic design, website design/management, indexing, localization (adapt the product to cultural area), technical translation, user interfaces, business analysis, degree in specified area.

Today's interview is with Kevin A. Memoli, Synthetic Organic Chemist, who has a BA degree in Chemistry from Rutgers University Newark, and a Masters degree in Organic Chemistry from Rutgers University New Brunswick.
He has written Medical Research Papers concerning drug development research and has also seventeen Patents. Kevin has been employed at Wyeth Inc. for fifteen years as a Chemist working on drug research and has been employed for two years at Hoffman-La Roche Inc. working on drug research but at a different point in the process.
MLAC: What inspired you to become a Chemist?
KAM: My sister gave me a chemistry set for Xmas one year when I was twelve years old. That stimulated my curiosity. I was fascinated by the science.
MLAC: Please tell us about your duties as a Chemist in the Drug Discovery Process.
KAM: I worked in drug discovery for fifteen years. Upper management, in collaboration with Biology, picks the disease to research. What they are going to go after depends on the market (profit) potential. An example of this would be antibiotics....
Bacterias are developing a resistance to antibiotics. You might think drug companies would jump on this. However, they are looking at the profit potential. Antibiotics are taken for a short period of time and drug companies are interested in medicine to be taken continuously, that is, for chronic ailments. As a drug discovery (aka. Medicinal) Chemist, I took chemical leads obtained through mass screenings of a chemical library and modified the chemical structure to minimize toxicity and maximize efficacy.This is an interative process between Chemistry and Biology. You are looking to see a "cause and effect" relationship between the chemical structure of the molecule and the biological properties.
MLAC: What exactly is the drug discovery process?
KAM: It all starts out with a Biologist coming up with an ailment to investigate.  They then develop screening tests for the project. For every ailment there are screening tests established for each step in the process. After the initial mass screening, which is always a chemical test (i.e. in vitro), the Chemists then begin the process of modifying the chemical structures of the lead compounds and submitting these compounds to the Biologists. The Biologists then test the compounds in an appropriate animal model to determine their toxicity and activity. After the last screen, which is always a primate model, the next step is to apply for an investigational new drug with the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Permission is sought to use the drug in a Phase 1 Trial where healthy volunteers who are not at risk for the disease are tested. Phase 2 deals with assessing the drug with patients with the disease. Phase 3 is the final drug testing prior to seeking marketing approval. A new drug application is filed based on the results of the clinical trials. Strict guidelines must be met before a drug is approved. Stage 4 deals with the post marketing phase where the FDA may require researchers to continue research to discern a drugs performance and other possible uses.
MLAC: What guidelines have you used when writing technical papers concerning your research?
KAM: I have written papers that deal with chemical synthesis. The ACS (American Chemical Society) gives general guidelines for writing scientific papers,  but the exact formatting depends on the specific journal where you are submitting your research paper. There are common characteristics of a scientific paper which consist of a title or mast head, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, experimental section, results, discussion and the conclusion which is a summary. There is a length limit and that depends on the specific journal. The amount of information you need to substantiate your work also varies from journal to journal. To make a statement or to prove a fact, you need a reference to back it up. Any previous work done has to be cited with a reference.  I did a literature search via the internet using several online scientific data bases.
MLAC: What is your particular method for submitting a research paper to a journal?
KAM: Different journals are more appropriate for certain papers. First I select the journal which I want to submit to, then I write the paper to those format specifications. I pick a journal that I think would be appropriate for my paper. In some cases it may not be clear as to where to submit my paper....if so, I usually submit to a journal that I enjoy reading.
MLAC: What happens after a paper is submitted?
KAM: The editor submits it to at least one reviewer; an expert in the field not employed by the journal. After reviewing the paper, the reviewer returns the paper back to the editor with his suggestions for revision and recommendation (or not) to publish. The editor then returns the paper to the writer. This is an iterative process. The writer then addresses any criticisms/revisions and resubmits the paper. The reviewer is anonymous to the writer. There may be two or three reviewers involved in reviewing one paper. When the reviewer is satisfied with the paper, he recommends to the editor to publish or not. It is ultimately the editor's decision whether or not to publish. Once a paper is in the public domain, it is no longer patentable, so you must file a patent first and then write about it. This could be a long process and could take years. The length of wait time varies from journal to journal.
MLAC: Give us some details about your patents.
KAM: I have several different types of patents such as a Structure Patent which covers chemical uniqueness and a Use Patent which deals with the particular application for the drug. While working at a drug company, I have filed seventeen  patents derived from drug research. I wrote the experimental procedure for making particular compounds. Then the patent attorneys filed for the patent. The company for which I have worked owns the legal rights for my inventions.

1.      Selective Inhibition of Human Brain Tumor Cells through Multifunctional Quantum-Dot-Based siRNA Delivery”, Jung, Jongjin; Solanki, Aniruddh; Memoli, Kevin A.; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Kim, Hiyun; Drahl, Michael A.; Williams, Lawrence J.; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Lee, Ki-Bum, Angewandte Chemie, International Edition,  2010,  49(1), 103-107.
2.       “Stem cell differentiation: Controlling Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Using Extracellular Matrix Protein Patterns”,  Solanki, Aniruddh; Shah, Shreyas; Memoli, Kevin A.; Park, Sung Young; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Ki-Bum, Small , 2010, 6(22), 2508-2510. 
3.       “Synthesis of a Novel Diazepine”, Memoli, Kevin A. , Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 2007, 44(4), 927-928.
4.       “A Convenient Preparation of 3-Mercaptopicolinic Acid”, Memoli, Kevin A., Tetrahedron Letters, 1996, 37(21), 3617-3618.
5.       “Synthesis and antiulcer activity of novel 5-(2-ethenyl substituted)-3(2H)-furanones”; Felman, Steven W.; Jirkovsky, Ivo; Memoli, Kevin A.; Borella, Luis; Wells, Cheryl; Russell, Jim; Ward, Jim; J. Med. Chem., 1992, 35(7),  1183-90.        
    Several of Kevin's  Seventeen Patents:

1.      “Cyclohexylphenyl Carboxamides: Tocolytic Oxytocin Receptor Antagonists”, Failli, Amedeo Arturo; Trybulski, Eugene John; Shumsky, Jay Scott; Dusza, John Paul; Memoli, Kevin Anthony. (2002) US 7,202,239
2.      “Novel Tricyclic Diazepines: Tocolytic Oxytocin Receptor Antagonists”, Failli, Amedeo Arturo; Shumsky, Jay Scott; Caggiano, Thomas Joseph; Sabatucci, Joseph Peter; Memoli, Kevin Anthony; Trybulski, Eugene John. (2002) US 7,109,193
3.      “Cyclohexylphenyl Vasopressin Agonists”, Failli, Amedeo Arturo; Shumsky, Jay Scott;  Caggiano, Thomas Joseph; Dusza, John Paul; Memoli, Kevin Anthony. (2002) US 7,053,083

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